Literature review on motivation and performance

Motivation can affect both the acquisition of people's skills and abilities; and also the extent to which they utilize their skills and abilities" (locke and latham, 2004). In other words workers should be paid according to the number of units produced in order to motivate them to the other hand in line with building on the concept of motivation elton mayo (1953) came up with the human relations approach whereby the emphasis is laid on non-economic motivators. 2):does relative autonomous motivation positively affect good study strategy used by students and the study effort?

Literature review on motivation theories

Am was a measure of the amount of self-determined motivation meaning the motivation which came from within the student. Employees with specific hard goals tend to perform better compared to those with vague goals and that a goal is a standard for assessing an individual's performance. De charms (1968) further argued that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may interact, rather than summate that is the introduction of extrinsic rewards for the behaviors that was intrinsically rewarding may decrease rather than enhance the overall motivation.

However, people who operate within the prevention focus tend to be more concerned with duties and responsibilities and are more sensitive to the existence or absence of punishments. The earliest views of of the earliest views of motivation is frederick w taylor et al. Levine found that employees with higher wage residuals reported that they were less likely to leave, were more satis¬ed with their pay, were willing to work harder than they had to, and were more committed to the organization.

Besides, frey (1997) suggests that the important matter is whether the external intervention is in the form of a command or a reward. Structural equation modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high ram would positively affect good study strategy (gss) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. To create an optimal learning composite from the scores on the lassi (learning and study strategies inventory; vansteenkiste et al.

The positive correlation of autonomous motivation with deep study strategy (sobral 2004) and deep study strategy with academic performance is supported by in other studies in medical education (sobral 2004; mcmanus et al. The locus of causality for his behavior changes from self to the external reward and thus the individual's perception of self-control, free choice, and commitment deteriorate and hence do his addition frey (1997) note that high intrinsic work motivation evolving from work which is interesting involves the trust and loyalty of personal relationships and is participatory. Adams suggested that employees develop beliefs about what constitutes a fair and equitable return for their job performance and contributions therefore employees always compare their efforts and the associated rewards with that of other employees and in case there is a situation whereby there is an element of injustice or unfairness there is an imbalance that is a perception of inequity will result.

In conclusion, ram positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. Self-regulatory er quite differently, higgins (1997, 1998) proposed the regulatory focus theory that draw important differences in the processes through which individuals approach pleasure and avoid pain. This means that some variables have stronger associations in some subgroups and weaker associations in others.

We found that males had significantly higher cm, significantly lower ram and significantly lower gpas as compared to the females (see table 3). The authors examined motivators and hygiene factors in the workplace and proposed that where job satisfaction was high there would be corresponding high motivation. In the present study only final passing grades were used (grade by which the student had earned credits and passed the course).

He further proposed that individuals seek for personal causation and because of the desire to be the "origin" of his behavior; man keeps struggling against the constraint of external forces. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of uk the fierce era of competition, organizations nowadays are more emphasizing on the management of human resources (robert. According to him individuals can be influenced in four different ways given by positive reinforcement (a reward such as praise so that the person repeat the behavior), negative reinforcement (rewarding employees by removing unwanted consequences), extinction (deliberately withheld positive reinforcement to discourage unwanted behavior) and punishment (applying undesirable consequences for unwanted behaviors).

It is said that one of the important functions of human resource manager is to ensure job commitment at the workplace, which can only be achieved through motivation (petcharak, 2002). According to bassett-jones and lloyd (2005), content theory assume a more complex interaction between both internal and external factors, and explored the circumstances in which individuals react to different types of internal and external most well known content theory of motivation is the hierarchy of needs which has been put forward by abraham maslow (1943). Cm was a measure of motivation which originated outside of the individual, meaning that it was determined by external factors or reasons.

According to herzberg the most crucial difference between the motivators and the hygiene factors is that the motivator factors involve psychological growth while the hygiene factors involve physical and psychological pain avoidance. 2 intrinsic and extrinsic ing lakhani and wolf (2005), lakhani and von hippel (2003) and lemer and tirole (2004), the current scholarly thinking favors a framework that considers two components of motivation given by intrinsic and extrinsic components. Stoner, edward and daniel (1995) has described two different views on motivation theory, given by the earliest views and the contemporary approach which can further be subdivided into content and process theories.