A common theory holds that depression and painful symptoms follow the same descending pathways of the central nervous system. Interference with daily activities due to pain, the number of days in pain (within a 6-month period), and the diffuseness of pain (or number of pain sites) also predicted the severity of depression. Hg, cohen hj, blazer dg, kudler hs, krishnan kr, sibert te: religious coping and cognitive symptoms of depression in elderly medical patients.
111 bair et al21 suggest that baseline pain reduces the benefits of antidepressant therapy at 12 weeks in terms of depression and other quality-of-life outcomes, but more prospective studies are needed to better quantify goal of depression treatment is complete symptom resolution or remission. Most factor analyses demonstrated a two-factor solution in good accordance with the hads subscales for anxiety (hads-a) and depression (hads-d), respectively. In addition, further development of the instruments and research on coping in both populations of older persons suffering from major depression and cognitive decline is inge bh, rosenvinge jh: occurrence of depression in the elderly – a systematic review of 55 prevalence studies from 1990–2001 (in norwegian).
Few studies of older persons suffering from major depression and cognitive decline were found, and this also makes it difficult to conclude regarding coping and depression in these categories of elderly persons. More than 50% of patients with depression report somatic complaints only11,12,24,89- 92 and at least 60% of these somatic complaints are pain related. Most studies (n = 31) focused on "chronic" pain complaints of at least 6 months' mean (range) prevalence rates for concurrent major depression in patients identified as having pain by study setting are as follows: 52% (1.
Physical (or somatic) symptoms of depression, specifically fatigue, insomnia, and pain complaints, are more numerous in patients with depression, are frequently nonspecific,91,94 and are often unrelated to a known organic disease patient's presentation of physical complaints (and the prominence of pain symptoms) interferes with the recognition of depression for patients in primary care settings. Fritzsche et al97 noticed that patients with depression and pain who lacked psychological attribution to their illness were offered less psychosocial treatment, experienced worse outcomes, and received more medications and physical older studies addressed how specific medication practices were influenced by pain in patients with depression. And (6) what are the common biological pathways and implications for treatment choice when depression and pain coexist?
Http:///statistics/pdf/-strunk e, van der windt da, van marwijk hw, de haan m, beekman at: the prognosis of depression in older patients in general practice and the community. Palliat support care 2003;1:111– jh, siewerdt f, jackson r, akobundu u, wait c, sahyoun n: hardiness, depression, and emotional well-being and their association with appetite in older adults. Karger ag, uctionaccording to a review article by rosenvinge and rosenvinge , 10–19% of older persons in the general population suffer from symptoms of depression, and 2–4% suffer from a major depressive disorder.
An updated literature nd i1, dahl aa, haug tt, neckelmann information1department of public health and primary health care, section for preventive medicine, haukeland hospital, armauer hansen building, university of bergen, n-5021, bergen, norway. Previous work has shown that if all primary care patients presenting with a variety of pain conditions (eg, abdominal pain, headache, joint pain, and back pain) were evaluated for possible depression, 60% of previously undetected depression cases could have been recognized. E, fiksenbaum l, eaton j: the relationship between coping, social support, functional disability and depression in the elderly.
8 patients with depression often present with a complex set of overlapping symptoms, including emotional and physical complaints. All primary and review articles were examined for information pertinent to our s were eligible for inclusion if they addressed both depression and pain symptoms. A systematic review would contribute to a better understanding of the field today and may contribute to meeting a growing interest from personnel in both the specialist and primary health care service who serve depressed older persons.
Mg, dendukuri n: risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. New york, guilford press, hg, cohen hj, blazer dg, pieper c, meador kg, shelp f, et al: religious coping and depression among elderly, hospitalized medically ill men. Pain with comorbid depression also appears to be additive in terms of an increased number of medical visits and higher health care costs.
A, goodwin l, rayner l, shaw e, hansford p, sykes n, et al: illness perceptions, adjustment to illness, and depression in a palliative care population. Included depression severity and secondary measures such as functional status, quality of life, health care costs and utilization, and treatment efficacy. On this basis we conducted a systematic computer-based literature review, including studies where the participants had a mean age of 60 years or more, and where different concepts of coping were studied in relation to depression.
Depression is most prevalent in pain, psychiatric, and specialty clinics vs population-based or primary care , the presence of pain negatively affects the recognition and treatment of depression. Future episodes of pain, such as low back pain, chest pain, headache, and musculoskeletal complaints were predicted by the presence of depression. Related variables in literature refer to determinants of psds since only longitudinal studies were included.